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课程简介


课程名称:(中文)预防医学    (英文)Preventive medicine
授课对象: 医学类·非预防医学专业本科

课程简介:
    随着现代医学技术的迅速发展,医学模式已由疾病的单因单果模式,即生物医学模式,逐渐转变为生物-心理-社会医学模式;尤其是近年来艾滋病、SARS、禽流感等疾病呈世界范围内的流行趋势,公共卫生和疾病预防与控制已经逐渐显示出其不可替代的重要性,因而预防医学已成为各大医学院校所有非预防医学专业(临床医学、护理医学、检验医学、影像医学等专业)的主要课程之一。预防医学作为现代医学院的重要组成部分,已越来越成为一门十分重要的与临床医学密切相关的课程。本学科特色是以“环境—人群—健康”为模式,以人群为主要研究对象,针对人群中疾病发生发展规律,运用基础科学、临床医学、流行病学、环境卫生科学和医学统计学等多学科的原理和方法,分析环境中主要致病因素对人群健康和疾病发生发展的影响并阐述其规律,提出改善和利用环境因素的卫生要求的理论根据和措施原则,制定预防和控制对策;并通过相应公共卫生措施,最终达到预防疾病,促进健康,提高生命质量的目的。
    医学类本科各专业的学生通过学习预防医学,应达到以下目的:学习环境与健康关系的概念,掌握影响健康的各种环境因素,充分认识改善和利用环境是预防疾病,促进健康,提高生命质量的重要措施;树立预防为主思想,学会运用三级预防策略处理卫生保健服务中的有关问题;掌握作为全科医师应具有的预防疾病,促进个体和群体健康的基本理论、基本知识和基本技能,以适应社区卫生服务的需要;医学统计方法的基本理论、基本方法与技能,具备基本的医学科研设计、统计分析与评价能力,为阅读专业文献、进行科研工作打下良好的统计学基础。 
    整个课程内容包括绪论和各论。绪论旨在阐述预防医学的研究对象和任务、预防医学发展简史、预防医学的主要内容和学习目的。各论对下列各方面问题进行详细阐述:人类环境与生态平衡、环境污染及对健康的影响、环境污染的防治,生活环境、食物、生产环境及社会心理因素对健康的影响,预防保健的策略与措施、社区卫生服务,人群健康研究的流行病学方法,包括疾病的分布、描述性研究、队列研究、病例对照研究、流行病学实验研究、病因研究、诊断实验和疾病筛检及循证医学,医学统计学的基本内容、数值变量资料的统计分析、分类变量资料的统计分析、秩和检验、直线相关与回归和医学科研设计。 

教学方法:
采用理论课与实验(习)课相结合方式,课程总学时为122学时,理论课82学时,实验课12学时,PBL12学时,自主学习16学时。理论课与实验课之比为7.3:1。
教    材:
预防医学(第二版 施 榕主编,高等教育出版社,全国高等医学规划教材)
考核方式:考  试 



Course Introduction of Hygiene
Course name: Hygiene
Teaching objects: medical college students, including all bachelors and college level students major in non-preventive medicine.

Course introduction:
With the rapid development of modern medical science and technology, the medical model has been converted from the solo-cause-solo-result model, which was the biological model, to bio-psycho-social medical model. Especially, the worldwide epidemic of some severe diseases, such as AIDS, SARS and the bird flu, has pushed public health and disease prevention and control issues in front of all. Public health and preventive medicine has been gradually showing their irreplaceable properties than ever. Therefore, preventive medicine is set as a primary course in all medical colleges and universities for all students except who is major in that, e.g. for the clinical medicine, nursing, laboratory medicine, diagnostic radiology students etc. Hygiene is a primary branch of preventive medicine and based on the principle of ‘prevention first’, is a science of study on the relationship between the external environment and human health, is a complete course system that consist of the environmental and occupational hygiene, nutrition and food hygiene and medical statistics.  The features of hygiene are based on the environment-population-health research mode to observe the principles of disease occurrence and development in populations, to analyze the influence and principles of major environmental causes affecting on the development of diseases and public health by using multiply methods of the basic science, clinical medicine, epidemiology, environment hygiene and medical statistics, to provide the scientific evidences and implementation principles of improving and utilizing environmental hygiene, to constitute the disease prevention and control policy and strategies, to eventually achieve the objectives of disease prevention, public health promotion and the improvement of quality of life in populations via those measures.

The study objectives of environmental and occupational hygiene for all medical students should be as following: to learn the concepts of relationship between environment and health; to have comprehensive grasps of all types of environmental factors which could influence health, the concepts that improvement and utilization of environment are the important methods of disease prevention, health promotion and improvement of quality of life; to accept the concepts of prevention first and the strategy of prevention at three levels, to apply them to the practice for handling of the related problems during medical service; to have comprehensive grasps of the basic principles, basic knowledge and basic skills of health promotion in individuals and public by disease prevention, those are the prerequisites of being a general physician, and to be geared to the community medical service needs.

The study objectives of medical statistics are, to master the primary scientific thoughts and extrapolability; to be familiar with the basic principles, methodology and skills of medical statistics; to have the basic capacity of medical research design, statistical analysis and evaluation, which can be the good statistical preparation for literature reading and researches.
The course content includes introduction and 13 chapters. The introduction section explains the research objects and objectives of hygiene, the brief history of its development, the main contents and study purpose of it. Chapters have detailed explanations on the contents as following: human environment and ecological balance, the influence of environmental pollution on health, the prevention and control of environmental pollution, the influences of living environment, food, working environment and social-psychological effect on health, disease prevention and health policy and strategy, community medical service, the basic definitions and concepts in medical statistics, statistical analysis of numerical and categorical variables, rank sum test, linear correlation and regression, and medical research design.

Teaching mode: lectures and experiment (or practice). Total of class hours is 122, which includes 82 class hours of lectures and 12 class hours of experiments. The proportion of lectures/ experiments is 7.3:1.

Textbook: Preventive medicine ( Shi rong, people’s medical publishing house, the research society of medicine textbooks development for national college and university programmed textbook, Ministry of Health programmed textbook, textbook for national college and university)

Evaluation mode: Paper Examination

 

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